expect自动化实战

3年前 (2017-07-17) gtj linux, shell 0评论 已收录 196℃

expect命令是一个实现交互功能的软件套件,是基于TCL的脚本编程语言,在企业运维中,系统会以交互的形式要求运维人员输入指定的字符串,之后才能继续执行命令。例如:为用户设置密码时,一般情况下需要手工输入两次密码,比如使用ssh连接远程服务器时,第一次连和系统实现两次交互。
spawn启动指定进程>expect获取期待的关键字>send向指定进程发送字符>进程执行完毕,退出
expect 表达式 [动作]
例子:

[root@sf106232 scripts]# cat test.exp 
#!/usr/bin/expect
spawn ssh root@10.19.106.61  uptime
expect  "*password:" {send "123456\n"}
expect eof
结果:
[root@sf106232 scripts]# expect test.exp 
spawn ssh root@10.19.106.61 uptime
root@10.19.106.61's password: 
 16:55:15 up 236 days,  2:37,  1 user,  load average: 0.12, 0.13, 0.09
交互式输入yes
[root@sf106232 scripts]# cat uptime.exp 
#!/usr/bin/expect
spawn ssh root@10.19.106.121 uptime
expect {
   "yes/no"  {exp_send "yes\r";exp_continue}  ##匹配yes
   "*password" {exp_send "123456\r"}  ##输入密码

}
expect eof
注释:expect{},类似多行expect。
测试:
[root@sf106232 scripts]# expect uptime.exp 
spawn ssh root@10.19.106.121 uptime
The authenticity of host '10.19.106.121 (10.19.106.121)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 67:10:80:cf:48:59:91:9f:33:08:40:34:7e:0f:d9:28.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '10.19.106.121' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
<h3>send_user命令</h3>
打印脚本信息,类似echo
[root@sf106232 scripts]# cat test1.exp 
#!/usr/bin/expect
send_user "iam suixiaofeng\n"
send_user "i am a linuxer,\t"
send_user "my blog is https://bk.devopstack.cn\n"

[root@sf106232 scripts]# expect test1.exp 
iam suixiaofeng
i am a linuxer,	my blog is https://bk.devopstack.cn

exit命令

退出expect脚本,也可以做清理或提示工作

[root@sf106232 scripts]# cat test1.exp 
#!/usr/bin/expect
send_user "iam suixiaofeng\n"
send_user "i am a linuxer,\t"
send_user "my blog is https://bk.devopstack.cn\n"
exit -onexit {

 send_user "GOOD bye.\n"
}
[root@sf106232 scripts]# expect test1.exp 
iam suixiaofeng
i am a linuxer,	my blog is https://bk.devopstack.cn
GOOD bye.

常用命令总结

spawn:用过spawn执行一个程序或命令,之后所有的expect操作都在这个执行的程序或命令中执行。
expect:获取spawn程序的交互信息,查看是否和其事先指定的信息想匹配。
send:当expect匹配了指定的字符串后,发送指定的字符串给系统,这些命令可以支持一些特殊的转义符号,例如: \r回车 \n换行 \t tab等
exp_contine:继续匹配expect程序或命令
send_user:打印脚本信息
exit:退出expect脚本,也可以做清理或提示工作

expect变量

set 变量名 变量值

[root@sf106232 scripts]# cat 20170718.exp 
#!/usr/bin/expect
set test  "suixiaofeng"
puts $test
send_user "$test\n"
exit -onexit {
 send_user "hihi\n"
}
测试:
[root@sf106232 scripts]# expect 20170718.exp 
suixiaofeng
suixiaofeng
hihi

特殊参数变量

[root@sf106232 scripts]# vim 2017071801.exp
[root@sf106232 scripts]# cat  2017071801.exp 
#!/usr/bin/expect
#define var
set file [lindex $argv 0]
set host [lindex $argv 1]
set dir  [lindex $argv 2]
send_user "$file\t$host\t$dir\n"
puts "$file\t$host\t$dir\n"
[root@sf106232 scripts]# expect 2017071801.exp blog.cool360.org 10.20.23.1 tmp
blog.cool360.org	10.20.23.1	tmp
blog.cool360.org	10.20.23.1	tmp

备注:传参 set 变量名 [lindex $argv 2] , $argc表示传参个数,$argv0 表示脚本的名字。
[root@sf106232 scripts]# cat  2017071801.exp 
#!/usr/bin/expect
#define var
set file [lindex $argv 0]
set host [lindex $argv 1]
set dir  [lindex $argv 2]
set name [lindex  $argv0]
puts $argc
puts "$name\n"
send_user "$file\t$host\t$dir\n"
puts "$file\t$host\t$dir\n"
[root@sf106232 scripts]# expect 2017071801.exp blog.cool360.org 10.20.23.1 tmp
3
2017071801.exp
blog.cool360.org	10.20.23.1	tmp
blog.cool360.org	10.20.23.1	tmp

expect中的if

if {条件表达式} {
指令
}
or
if {条件表达式} {
指令
} else {
指令
}

实例:

[root@sf106232 scripts]# cat  2017071802.exp 
#!/usr/bin/expect
if { $argc !=3 } {
   send_user "Usge: expect $argv0 file host dir \n"
    exit
}
#define var
set file [lindex $argv 0]
set host [lindex $argv 1]
set dir  [lindex $argv 2]
puts "$file\t$host\t$dir\n"

[root@sf106232 scripts]# expect 2017071802.exp blog.cool360.org 127.0.0.1 /tmp
blog.cool360.org	127.0.0.1	/tmp

eof关键字

结束匹配符

timeout

控制时间的变量

set timeout 30
expect timeout {puts "request timeout by linux"; return}

timeout
变量设置为0 表示立即超时, 为-1表示永不超时。

生产中自动化交互脚本

[root@sf106232 scripts]# cat 2017071803.exp 
#!/usr/bin/expect
if { $argc != 2 } {
   puts "Usage: expect $argv0 ip commend"
   exit
}
#defind var
set ip [lindex $argv 0]
set cmd [lindex $argv 1]
set password "123456"
spawn ssh root@$ip $cmd
expect {
         "yes/no" {send "yes\r"; exp_continue}
         "*password" {send "$password\r"}
}
expect eof

多台管理:

#!/bin/bash
if [ $# -ne 1 ];then
        echo $"USAGE:$0 cmd"
        exit 1
fi
cmd=$1
for n in 5 6 7 8 10
do
        expect zd.exp 10.19.106.$n "$cmd"
done

免交互发送文件

#!/usr/bin/expect
if { $argc != 3 } {
        puts "usage: expect $argv0 file host dir"
        exit
}
#
set file [lindex $argv 0]
set host [lindex $argv 1]
set dir [lindex $argv 2]
set password "123456"
spawn scp -rp -P22 $file root@$host:$dir
expect {
        "yes/no" {send "yes/r";exp_continue}
        "*password" {send "$password\r"}
}
expect eof
博主

这货来去如风,什么鬼都没留下!!!

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